According to the Tanzania Development Vision 2025, education plays a crucial role in bringing about social and
economic transformation. In spite of its importance in bringing social and economic development, Tanzania’s
education sector faces a number of challenges such as poor teaching and learning environment as well as poor
learning outcomes. Poor learning outcomes can be observed in the trend of National examination results whereby
in the past five years, pass rates for secondary level dropped from 89 percent in 2005 to 43 percent in 2012 and
from 71 percent in 2006 to 31percent in 2012 for primary level students (NECTA,2005-2012). In addition,
findings from the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) and Early Grade Maths Assessment (EGMA) show
that in numeracy, less than a third of standard three students were able to do simple multiplications which they
were required to learn in standard two. In English language only 6 percent of the students had basic level of
comprehension in English at standard 2 levels (USAID, 2014). A national assessment called UWEZO of 2015,
also shows that five out of ten pupils of standard three could not read a paragraph of standard two in Swahili.
Eight out of ten of standard three pupils could not read a story of standard two in English and seven out of ten
of standard three could not do a Mathematics test for standard two.