Over the past two decades, Tanzania has invested signifi cantly in the education sector with notable
outcomes in several aspects, including the rapid expansion of the education sector at all levels,
from primary to higher education. The outcomes are particularly notable in the rapid increase in
students enrolments at all levels. Nevertheless, the rapid expansion of the education sector has not
been matched with improvement in the learning outcomes. Several studies have been conducted to
examine the learning outcomes among school children with consistent results: though many more
children are attending school today than at any other time in Tanzania, they are not learning.