Tanzania has made major efforts to improve the education system through the Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) and Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP). However, even though more classrooms have been built and enrolment numbers have increased significantly, many citizens assert that the quality of education children are receiving is poor and that children are not learning essential skills they will need to find work, thrive in their communities and contribute to national development. While PEDP and SEDP include a commitment to improving educational quality, efforts thus far have largely been directed at increasing quantitative inputs. The question of educational QUALITY now needs to come front and centre. What does ―quality education‖ mean? How do we recognize that a child has received a high-quality education? To what extent are children actually developing essential skills in schools?